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England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland
The territory of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is historically divided into four parts: England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland.
Of the four countries which make up the United Kingdom, England is the largest. It occupies an area of 131,8 thousand sq.km.
England borders on Scotland in the north. In the east it is washed by the North Sea. In the south it is separated from the continent by the English Channel. In the west it borders on Wales and is washed by the Bristol Channel and by the Irish Sea.
As concerns the relief, England can be divided into: Northern England mostly taken up by the low Apennine Mountains, the Central plain, lowland South-east England, and hilly South-west England.
Scotland is the most northern of the countries that constitute the United Kingdom. It occupies an area of 78,8 thousand sq.km.
Scotland is washed by the Atlantic Ocean in the north and west and by the North Sea in the east.
Geographically the territory of Scotland can be divided into three regions: the Northern Highlands, the Central Lowlands and the Southern Uplands. The Highlands are the highest mountains in the British Isles. The Lowlands are the cradle of the Scottish nation. The Southern Uplands seldom rise over 579 m above sea level. It is one of the most sparsely populated districts in Great Britain.
Wales is a peninsula washed by the sea on three sides: the Bristol Channel in the south, the St. George’s Channel1 in the west, and the Irish Sea in the north. Its territory is 20,8 thousand sq.km.
Geographically Wales may be considered part of highland Britain, the Cumbrian Mountains occupying most of the land. It is an area of high mountains, deep valleys, waterfalls and lakes.
Northern Ireland occupies the north-eastern part of Ireland, which is separated from the island of Great Britain by the North Channel2. In the south-west Northern Ireland borders on the Irish Republic3.
Almost all the area of Northern Ireland is a plain of volcanic origin, deepening in the centre to form the largest lake of the British Isles, Lough Neagh4.